Option 1 Kukai
First make sure you have a secure offline environment for your wallet. You can either have a dedicated computer for it or a bootable Linux USB Flash Drive (with e.g. Tails) that never connects to internet.
Always download the Kukai wallet from the official links on Github and verify the SHA256 checksum. It is ...
The first list contains the endorsements.
The second list contains all the operations regarding votes and proposals.
The third list contains anonymous operations.
The last one contains the manager operations (reveal, transaction, delegation and origination).
If you need to check only the transactions, you should check only the last one.
All transactions included in the Tezos must reference a block hash within the past 60 block hashes. This acts as an additional layer of notarization of the chain, besides the consensus but it means you need a few extra steps to sign transactions offline.
One way to do this is to use the RPC:
First off, utxos and accounts aren't that different. You can look at the pair (account, counter) as almost equivalent to a utxo.
The main reason has to do with concurrent access to smart contracts. In most cases, two transactions to the same smart-contract will commute (or almost commute) and therefore the senders do not need to know what other transactions ...
Currently, there is a fixed constant that limits the total gas usage of a single block to:
hard_gas_limit_per_block = 4000000
With the proto003 fee change, transactions (txs) have minimum gas costs of:
gas_limit : 10100
This means that the maximum number of txs per block is limited to 4,000,000/10100, which is ~396. As blocks have at least a 60 second ...
There are multiple references online which provide material to understand the steps involved in this. You can check this or that. Some elements are also provided in this other question
Basically the steps are
branch hash: /chains/main/blocks/head/hash
In Tezos, the fee is independant from the gas : whatever the gas consumed, you always pay the full fee.
However, bakers will probably compute the ratio fee/gas, and prefer transactions with higher fee/gas, i.e. more reward for less computation.
Failed transactions should be detected and get an error code returned in the preapply (RPC). So that this transaction even have been injected indicate a bug or bad error handling in a wallet. It is very easy to see why this transaction failed. It tried to send the full balance and wont have enough funds to cover the burn.
You can use the rpc to get the ...
The best solution is to apply the minimum payout rule. So, you will pay the delegator only when this value is reached.
For example, let MinPayout = 0.01, then:
Cycle Reward Debt Payout
#n 0.004 0.004 ---
#n+1 0.004 0.008 ---
#n+2 0.004 0.012 0.012
That's it =)
Both the transactions that you are referencing are the fist transaction to a new address. As you can see on the operations cost table for Protocol 004, 0.257 tz is burned "if the recipient is a new address".
See the second part of this answer to get details on the reason of this cost and this one for the explanation of the 0.257 tz value.
In Tezos Alpha the Transaction List size is limited:
Tezos does not download blocks all at once, but rather considers headers and various lists of operations separately. In Tezos.alpha, a maximum size in bytes is applied to the list of transactions MAX_TRANSACTION_LIST_SIZE = 500kB (that’s 5MB every 10 minutes at most).
Other lists of operations (...
Tezos current protocol (003) achieves probabilistic finality after a recommended time of 30 confirmations which reduces the chances of the transaction being impacted by a reorg.
There are conversations about the possibility to evolve the consensus in the future to achieve absolute finality in 1 block time with a BFT type of mechanism such as tendermint
Conseil is software that provides this functionality. Alongside ConseilJS you can easily use this with your applications. Here is a full article regarding Conseil. And you can view the GitHub repo here.
I figured out that you can use the --dry-run option in the transfer statement so that node will send transaction to remote-signer to sign, and you can check the remote-signer logs to see if everything is working fine or not.
--dry-run will not actually send the transaction to the network.
Make sure you revealed public key just once and make sure you properly incement counter.
Also, take a look at Netezos, C# Tezos SDK. Here is an example of how to forge, sign and send a transaction:
var key = Key.FromBase58("edskS9DjUKo8ogBBU8LeU...");
var rpc = new TezosRpc("https://rpc.tzkt.io/carthagenet/");
var head = await rpc.Blocks.Head.Hash....
The full fee is always paid for every transactions - the gas limit is just that, a cap on the amount of gas a given transaction can consume. A baker can be guaranteed that they are paid at least fee/gas_limit per unit of gas consumed, even if they consume less.
Some bakers will also enforce a minimum per_gas fee, which is currently set to 0.1 mutez (or 1 ...
Difference between reveal and transaction:
When a wallet sends a transaction, it must sign the transaction with the user's private key. However, there is no way for other users to check the signature, if they don't have the corresponding public key. That's why the wallet must issue a Reveal operation first, to reveal the public key of the user.
It is better (although more complex) to use fitness/endorsements. 900 fitness/endorsements is roughly 30 "normal" blocks (i.e. blocks with close to full endorsements), which is a simpler rule of thumb for users to remember and check.
The difference would be if the past 30 blocks have very low endorsements/fitness - this would make a chain-split in the past ...
Create a 32 byte generic hash of the raw tx
Base58 encode it with the 'o' prefix
It would look something like this:
var rawHash = libsodium.crypto_generichash(32, rawTx);
var prefix = new Uint8Array([5, 116]); // 'o'
var merged = new Uint8Array(prefix.length + rawHash.length);
merged = merged.set(prefix);
merged = merged.set(rawHash, prefix.length);
Operations of the following types can affect account balance:
However, there are three additional things which affect account balance as well:
When you bake a block.
When you miss seed_nonce_revelation.
In the FA2.0 standard the sender and receiver is send as Bytes (vs. send as string for FA1.2).
Both token standards say that sender and receiver are Michelson addresses. Michelson addresses have two allowed representations, as strings (readable representation) and as bytes (optimized representation).
What is the extra byte used for?
The extra byte is used ...
A series of blog posts from Nomadic Labs give a more detailed and up-to-date answer, notably this one: https://blog.nomadic-labs.com/emmy-in-the-partial-synchrony-model.html.
Roughly, the answer depends on how much stake an attacker is considered to have. But it also depends on whether the network message delays are reasonable, and on the degree of assurance ...