At the present time about 80% of the tezos tokens are actively used to bake/stake so the circulating supply you can buy on exchange is quite low.
Therefore it would not even possible currently for an attacker to purchase 51% of tezos token and become a "majority holder".
Now the consensus protocol itself would not allow a 51% holder to double spend just ...
In the documentation on https://tezos.gitlab.io you will find:
https://tezos.gitlab.io/introduction/howtouse.html: a description of what Tezos does at a high level under the form of an introductory tutorial targetted at new Tezos users.
In https://tezos.gitlab.io/whitedoc/the_big_picture.html: the organisation of the code base.
In the rest of the "...
I believe you should read a little bit more about the consensus protocol of tezos. For example those links are good
You will see there that Tezos is not reaching consensus by cracking some CPU-hard problem, it's a different ...
Some exchanges distribute baking rewards to their holders (e.g. gate.io), so I believe this will help with that as users can receive staking rewards and be in a position to trade. Also, delegators (e.g. users who are just delegating their stake) are free to move their tez to exchanges and trade as they are not restricted by bond deposits.
There is an equilibrium that is naturally found between baking and trading that corresponds to liquidity preference of individual holders. If the market has a high volatility then perhaps a higher fraction of people will stop baking/delegating to get their tokens on exchange.
The price to pay for this immediate liquidity is of course dilution and as the ...
I found an effort for the checkpoint:
https://tezosbtc.com/ burns Tezos block hashes into Bitcoin blockchain.
The following video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WEjxfpREhzQ&feature=youtu.be explains the details.
The tezos baking economics is not based on a target of 100% baking. In fact in your linked spreadsheet it assumes
% Tezos Actively Staking/Baking 44%
At the time of writing tzscan.io reports a staking ratio of 79%.
Tezos doesn't require 100% baking to run. It actually works well with a much smaller percentage. In theory it could run with only one ...