First of all, account's counter can't be greater than the global counter. The global counter grows with each manager operation. In other words, the global counter is the number of manager operations. Therefore, there is no max value. For two years the global counter has reached ~6M, which is equal to ~3M per year. Let's imagine, Tezos will process x10 ...


Currently, the cardinality of the valid operations set in the mempool is hard-coded at 2000. Whereas branch delayed operations (e.g. counter in the future, insufficient balance, etc.) are stored in a ring buffer of size 1000 with the semantics being that when the maximum number of operations stored has been reached, the oldest operation will be removed to ...


Account's counter is updated when the manager operation is included into the blockchain. It would be weird if the blockchain storage was affected by things not included in that blockchain :)

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