12 votes
Accepted

What determines the length of a cycle in Tezos?

Fundamentally a cycle is a set of block heights for which the baking en endorsement rights are determined by a single random seed. The reason to have many blocks in a cycle is that it lowers the ...
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  • 4,409
11 votes

What is the difference between implicit vs originated accounts?

Implicit accounts are accounts created from a public/private key pair. They start with tz{1,2,3}. They are always spendable, but not delegatable. They can be used for baking. They are created on the ...
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  • 3,278
9 votes
Accepted

Fees in proto 003?

The information is available from the official documentation in the « Baker » section https://tezos.gitlab.io/mainnet/protocols/003_PsddFKi3.html The basic formula specifies that fees are now ...
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  • 6,006
8 votes

Randomness, PVSS and Tezos

PVSS stands for publicly verifiable secret sharing. Any PVSS scheme has two phases, 1st Phase for secret-share distribution to participants, where a secret is broken into shares and each participants ...
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7 votes
Accepted

How to calculate a random seed?

We will need these operations: blake2b: size 32 concat: concatenation of byte arrays Also, let zero_bytes be 32 zero bytes. My answer is based on seed_storage.ml and seed_repr.ml, with some ...
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  • 2,501
7 votes
Accepted

What are nonce-revelations?

Fundamentally, nonces are used by the blockchain to create randomness, such as choosing the snapshot for a cycle. Nonces are created by bakers and all the nonces for the cycle are combined to create a ...
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  • 2,602
7 votes
Accepted

Largest block size in tezos?

In Tezos Alpha the Transaction List size is limited: Tezos does not download blocks all at once, but rather considers headers and various lists of operations separately. In Tezos.alpha, a maximum ...
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  • 697
6 votes
Accepted

Consensus layer future evolutions?

The terminology should be clarified a bit: Nakamoto consensus (bitcoin), the Tezos consensus algorithm are also "BFT" algorithms, they achieve consensus in the presence of Byzantine faults. So-...
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  • 4,409
6 votes
Accepted

BABY5 vs. BABYM1? How does the network decide which is the "right" protocol?

What happen at the network level is the combination of 2 phenomenons: First and foremost, we can expect that bakers (who voted for this amended protocol!) will run up to date software and therefore ...
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5 votes

What is the difference between implicit vs originated accounts?

Implicit accounts They are the only account that can take part in baking process. They start with tz1..... and in order to bake, they must be registered as delegate. They can bake on behalf of ...
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  • 1,115
5 votes

Does the current (Proto003) consensus protocol have the BFT property?

Tezos is going in the direction of BFT for two reasons: You have immediate confirmation of transactions, once they are included in a block It easier to have correctness proofs Today, Proto_003 is ...
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  • 3,278
4 votes
Accepted

Zero endorsement blocks

A baker must include endorsement operations when baking blocks. If the baker doesn't include any endorsements, than the result is a block with 0 endorsements. The reasons a baker doesn't include any ...
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3 votes

BABY5 vs. BABYM1? How does the network decide which is the "right" protocol?

Once a baker activates the BABYM1 protocol, BABY5 blocks are considered invalid. Once a baker activates the BABY5 protocol, BABYM1 blocks are considered invalid. There is no competition in this case ...
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3 votes
Accepted

Why follow-the-coin?

The follow-the-coin strategy is described in the Tezos white paper (in section 3.2.4) and is an adaptation of the follow-the-satoshi algorithm developed by Bentov & al. In essence the reason is a ...
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  • 6,006
3 votes

How do Tezos nodes achieve consensus on snapshots?

From the docs: "We admit, for the time being, that the protocol generates a random seed for each cycle. From this random seed, we can seed a CSPRNG which is used to draw baking rights for a cycle." ...
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  • 2,638
2 votes

Fees in proto 003?

The fees have been updated for proto004 (athens) please have a look here going forward https://github.com/keefertaylor/TezosKit/blob/master/docs/AthensProtocolFees.md
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  • 6,006
2 votes

What determines the length of a cycle in Tezos?

This is an empirical parameter but at high level it needs to be long enough to get enough to get statistical sample (for the randomization for the baking rights snapshot) and short enough to not know ...
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  • 6,006
2 votes
Accepted

How often do blockchain reorgs happen?

Basically reorgs do not seem to happen on mainnet, as far as I know. However, theoretically they can happen. Using the analysis from this blog post, for an attacker having 20% of the total active ...
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  • 883
2 votes

How much percent of participants does tezos need to achieve consensus?

For the current consensus protocol, Emmy*, the attacker needs at least half of the total stake, since it's a Nakamoto-style algorithm (like Bitcoin and Ouroboros). For the consensus algorithm of the ...
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  • 883
1 vote
Accepted

Is the endorsement quorum lowered, when a baker loses its baking rights, after two double (pre-)endorsement in the same cycle?

Yes; it effectively loses the rights, in that its blocks and consensus operations are not considered valid. No, the quorum remains the same. So the chain halts in your scenario.
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  • 883
1 vote

What happens to an operation if it gets reorged out?

If it is reorged out it will need to be broadcast again, but you cannot just re-broadcast the same operation. You'll have to give it an updated valid branch field in the operation, since the ...
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  • 869
1 vote

Consensus Mechanism: Single Entity, Multiple Endorsers

I suggest you to read this article: All you ever wanted to ask about Tezos — Illustrated: On cycle n-7 once every 32 blocks will contain a nonce hash. Indeed the corresponding bakers will have to ...
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  • 480

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