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The Tezos protocol is defined by its OCaml implementation. When amendment to the protocol are proposed, the delegates vote on hashes of amended implementations. That being said, some parts of the protocol have been formalized. Most notably, the semantics of the Michelson smart-contract language has been formalized in several semantic frameworks: Coq, Ott, K, ...


3

You basically have no guarantee of synchronicity for several reasons. We’re talking about a blockchain with no instant finality (yet) so a transaction can be “reversed” in the (real world) future so when you send a transaction, you don’t know if it will still be there in 30 or 1000 blocks. Off chain views use a node that may or may not be synchronized with ...


3

Choosing the order in which operations are applied is a privilege of the baker. So yes, frontrunning is possible on Tezos and can either be done by setting high fees (the default baker strategy is to apply transactions with high fees first) or by the bakers themselves when they build their blocks. The simplest protection against frontrunning is to run your ...


1

If you want to do it with Taquito, the confirmation method on the operation object returns a promise with different information like the block, the status, etc. You can also use confirmationObservable to get the same information with an observable. For more detailed information, you will have to use an indexer like Better Call Dev (although Taquito is ...


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