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In order for everybody to be able to validate signatures, public keys have to be stored on the blockchain using reveal operations. As far as I understand, such operations are not needed in Ethereum, where they can be retrieved from the signatures. What are the pros of using an extra operation?

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Ethereum way of retrieving the public key only works with some signing algorithms, ECDSA with secp256k1 in its case. It is also used by Tezos for tz2 (and P-256 for tz3), but not for tz1 which uses EdDSA. In general, Tezos wants to support new signature algorithms in the future. From this point of view, Reveal is more general and will work with probably all future changes.

(edited thanks to contributions from Arthur B.)

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    The specific curve isn't what permits this, it's the ECDSA signing algorithm. For tz2 and tz3 addresses, Tezos uses the ECDSA algorithm on curves secp256k1 and p-256. However, tz1 addresses use EdDSA, which is based on Scnhnorr signatures and doesn't allow recovery of the public key from the signature. There are however other benefits to this signing scheme, though they aren't used yet in Tezos. – Arthur B Feb 20 at 21:17

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