I've been baking successfully with 97 - 98% reliability on a spare laptop that's connected to a Nano ledger with the tezos baking app. I would like to migrate the node to a cloud server to see if the reliability improves (considering becoming a public baker). I'm assuming I need to import the keys from the ledger then scp them to the vps. I gave that a try, but doing something wrong. I get this error when the baker on the vps is ready to endorse

    Aug 28 05:49:45.410 - 013-PtJakart.baker.actions:   Error:
Aug 28 05:49:45.410 - 013-PtJakart.baker.actions:     No matching plugin for key scheme remote

The public keys json has an element named "locator" with the value remote:tz1........ The secret keys json has a value element which similarly has remote:tz1...... On the laptop I had tried the tezos-client import secret key command, pointing to "ledger://ledger name and path" and it "seemed" to work, so I copied the json to the vps. Wrong steps or missing some steps?

Edit: researching further, found out what may be valid schemes for the public and secret key json files at https://github.com/tezos-reward-distributor-organization/tezos-reward-distributor/issues/21 Tried locator scheme of unencrypted, but now get this error Failed to read a b58check_encoding data (Signature.Secret_key) Don't know if I'll need to re-import the key using something like "./tezos-client import secret key unencrypted:" or ensure the imported key is encryped and run the baker with the encrypted scheme. Will keep digging

1 Answer 1


You "cannot"[1] export keys out of a ledger device. That's the device's entire purpose, to ensure the private keys cannot be compromised.

You have to set up a client listener on your laptop to listen for signing requests, which would be handled by the ledger then returned back to the cloud node. Thus, you the laptop must remain open/running 24/7. Ensure your home internet router is port-forwarding the connection from cloud node to your laptop.

Using a ledger with cloud baking means your internet will need to be extremely rock solid. If it is your turn to bake and the cloud node cannot reach your laptop/ledger, you will miss the bake. Network latency can be a big factor as well (several round trips between cloud and laptop to sign a single endorsement).

[1]: There was a tool that allowed exporting keys, but it was a hack job and not official in any way.

  • Thanks, good info. I was hoping to "game" the system and run completely on the vps, but I see what you mean. The laptop has performed better than I expected but has had some hiccups. Tolerable for me as a private baker, but I'd like to have something more reliable with delegators starting to hop on. Also, I don't have static ip available with my residential ISP. Sounds like I'm better off keeping it on the laptop to avoid the network latency...and extra expense
    – Cardsfan
    Commented Aug 30, 2022 at 2:28
  • A static IP doesn't make any difference. More important that your internet is stable/reliable and your node is connected to plenty of peers. Try this script to add more peers
    – utdrmac
    Commented Aug 31, 2022 at 4:39

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