Is there a command-line tool to check whether the
tezos-node network is set up properly? E.g. how should I check that the listening port is actually open and receiving requests?
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There is no direct tool to confirm if your node is functioning properly. You can use
tezos-node config show to verify the running config before starting. Watch (ie: read) the output when the node starts as it will tell you if RPC is listening and on what port.
Use this site: https://www.yougetsignal.com/tools/open-ports/ to determine if the P2P port, 9732 is reachable from the outside. If not, you need to forward the port from your router or open your firewall. Your RPC port should not be exposed outside.
curl http://127.0.0.1:8732/chains/main/blocks/head to see the current head block of your node. Compare that to any public explorer.