The rules of the Bitcoin protocol is defined by the behavior of the latest Bitcoin Core version, whereas Ethereum is defined by the content of the Yellow Paper.
How is the correct behavior of the Tezos blockchain defined?
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The Tezos protocol is defined by its OCaml implementation. When amendment to the protocol are proposed, the delegates vote on hashes of amended implementations.
That being said, some parts of the protocol have been formalized. Most notably, the semantics of the Michelson smart-contract language has been formalized in several semantic frameworks: Coq, Ott, K, and Why3. For other parts, such as the amendment procedure and the consensus algorithm, formalization is ongoing and AFAIK the most detailed documents we have are the one of the "whitedoc" section of https://tezos.gitlab.io.