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Is it possible to discover the private key for a public address given one possesses the public key and the encryption passphrase?

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    this is not a tezos specific question, better suited for something like crypto.stackexchange.com – Frank Apr 9 '20 at 16:50
  • The funny answer is that we don't even know if one-way functions exists :) – Klassare Apr 9 '20 at 22:54
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No, it is not. Public keys are derived from the private key. Imagine if I had your public key (which is public information) and all I needed was your password to gain access to all of your funds. That would be extremely insecure. A simple brute-force password guessing system could handle that in a couple weeks, depending on how complex your password is.

The only way to reconstruct the secret/private key is using the seed-words (mnemonic) + passphrase (not same as encryption password).

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As @utdrmac mentioned, it is not possible to reverse engineer the private key from the public key. Public Key is created from a Private Key using one-way functions (also called trapdoor) which is easy to do but the reverse process of finding a Private Key from a Public Key is practically impossible. Sharing a few links below to give you a better idea about how Public/Private keys work in asymmetric encryption:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AQDCe585Lnc

https://medium.com/coinmonks/private-and-public-key-cryptography-explained-simply-4c374d371736

Hope this helps.

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